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or enjoy it for its own sake. Strong accounts of Motivational Hedonism have been used to support some of the normative types of hedonism and to argue against non-hedonistic normative theories. The Cyrenaics on Pleasure, Happiness, and Future-Concern, Phronesis, 47(4. Hedonists also have differing views about how the value of pleasure compares with the value of pain. This obstacle is unsurpassable for most versions of Quantitative Hedonism because it makes the value gained from different pleasures impossible to compare. Varieties of Hedonism, Journal of Social Philosophy, 33(2 240-256.

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The Further reading section is helpfully broken down by which of Mills essays they are most relevant. He understood that he could not conclusively prove that the principle was the correct criterion for morally right action, but also thought that it should be accepted because it was fair and better than existing criteria for evaluating actions and legislation. Some definitions lack sufficient detail to be informative about what pleasure actually is, or why it is valuable, and those that do offer enough detail to be meaningful are faced with two difficult tasks. Even with only the limited excesses of ancient Greece on offer, Epicurus advised his followers to avoid towns, and especially marketplaces, in order to limit the resulting desires for unnecessary things. Singer questions why some humans can see the intrinsic disvalue in human pain, but do not also accept that it is bad for sentient non-human animals to experience pain. In Philebus, Platos Socrates and one of his many foils, Protarchus in this instance, are discussing the role of pleasure in the good life. Mills Utilitarianism: Text and Criticism, Belmont CA: how to write a r three-four paragraph essay Wadsworth. Extent is not directly valuable for an individuals well-being because it refers to the likelihood of other people experiencing pleasure or pain. Socrates disagrees, arguing that good people would be able to overcome this desire because of their strong love of justice, fostered through philosophising. This book can be difficult to acquire.

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