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is the rule not the exception. 9.9 References Asia Foundation. These include codes of conduct, effective competition, business integrity, and measures to secure greater value for money in public spending.

Planet of the Phones. Yet unless public officials take pride in their work and their independence from both political and private influence all other efforts will fail. Citizens may be outraged by news about corruption, but nothing will happen without collective-action mechanisms to bring about change.

But what I believe we can all agree is that we should send a clear message to the corrupt that there will be no impunity and that we will restrict their ability to travel and do business as usual in our countries. It is empowered to investigate any person, even police officers and ministers, and conducts public outreach to raise public awareness and shape social norms (cpib 2016b).

They should put the screws in them, call them on the carpet and demand accounts. For this to happen, we have developed the new concept of grand corruption. It is critical that public officials and institutions be assigned with specific mandates and tasks upon which they are expected to deliver. Our support to countries such as Colombia and Ghana has already increased revenues and reduced tax evasion. These give people confidence that the law is enforced fairly and free from political influence. Use of social media helped ignite and organise the uprisings across North Africa and the Middle East. Corruption is driven by human nature and greed. Part of that summer of 88 was spent following the worlds greatest bike race, the Tour de France.

A final conceptual distinction that needs to be made is between corruption and low state capacity. Clear data enables you to see very similar countries, like Latvia and Estonia, with very different levels of corruption (Transparency International 2015).

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